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Coffee Machine FAQs

After 15+ years as a home barista and 5+ years as a coffee machine retailer I know the questions that come to mind for new starters. And I have a rule. If I get asked a question 3 times I write an FAQ. This is great for me as it has allowed me to build up a collection of handy tips to share online. Please enjoy my Coffee Machine FAQs.


Are manual coffee machines easy to use?

It's surprisingly easy to use a manual coffee machine, and many home baristas are self-taught. You can find all that you need to get started by flicking through pages under the Learn tab ...and if you are a Melbourne coffee machine customer you get Free Training with me, one on one.

I have run hundreds of these training sessions and have no problem taking anyone from "pod novice" to home barista. I have even trained up my 10 year old son, and he really enjoys making an espresso for his Dad and a latte for his Mum on the weekends! 

To find out how you can make great coffee at home with a manual Italian coffee machine please start with my Training Page then move onto my Understanding Espresso guide and my Home Barista Workflows


Why is an Italian coffee machine a smart choice?

When looking for a coffee machine for your home you will probably start with appliances (eg, Sunbeam, Breville, Jura). Sure, appliances can look attractive because of their low cost. However, as soon as you run some calculations out to 20 years Italian coffee machines are the clear winner for your wallet as well as for the environment. This is because replacement of appliances every 3-5 years is typical with the “planned obsolescence” strategies that some appliance manufacturers employ. I hear about this time and time again from new customers.

Italian coffee machines are designed to last. A well cared for machine should last 20 years and 30 years isn’t unusual. During the machine’s lifetime servicing will be required and occasionally components will need to be replaced but the machine will never be discarded. Servicing costs are low as manual Italian coffee machines are easy to fix. Parts are common and easy to find as most machines use generic components, sourced from a supply chain in Milan.


Why are manual coffee machines the best choice for home?

Why are manual coffee machines a better choice than automatic coffee machine? Why can’t I just push a button to get a perfect cup of coffee from a fully automatic bean-to-cup coffee machine? Why can’t I push a button to get a perfect espresso from an automatic coffee machine?

Let’s start off with bean-to-cup coffee machines. These are the machines that grind the beans, feed them into the machine and then run the water through the grounds. Whether you spend $2k or $5k on a bean-to-cup automatic coffee machine you will never get anything close to a great espresso. The first reason is that bean-to-cup automatic coffee machines can’t create and compress a puck of coffee like a human can. Without a solid puck these machines can’t build the pressure needed to squeeze coffee oils from the grounds. The second reason is that automatic coffee machines can’t “watch” an extraction to stop at the optimum point. These machines can only guess the best place to stop extraction by controlling either time or volume.

So what about automatic coffee machines with buttons for dosing? These are the machines that allow manual coffee grinding and tamping followed by push button extraction. Again, these are a poor choice for home as the best way to control an espresso extraction is by watching colour as the espresso pours out, not by controlling time or volume. As with fully automated machines, these machines are unable to stop extraction at the optimum point. Manual control of extraction is part of the art of espresso. To learn more about extracting by colour please visit my Understanding Espresso page.


How much should I spend on a home coffee machine?

How much do I need to spend? Let me change the question to "How much would I need to spend to get an Italian coffee machine I could honestly enjoy every single day?" The answer is around $2k.

Ready for a surprise? Spending more than $2k won't get a better coffee into my cup. So, why spend more?

The reason for spending more is about quality of the coffee machine. A higher quality machine will last longer, cost you less to maintain and have higher re-sale value. Quality gear is also something you will be proud to own and something that you will really enjoy. There's something magical about making amazing coffee in your own home with a traditional Italian coffee machine. The home barista experience is just that - an experience. It’s not just about the “drink.” Quality is the key reason to choose a high end machine.

So if I change the question from “how much do I need to spend?” to “how much would I like to spend?” my answer is just over $3k for a heat exchanger espresso machine, grinder and some great accessories.


What is the payback period for a home barista?

Italian coffee machines come with a high upfront cost but the payback period is blisteringly FAST!!! Over the years I have had many customers visit after crunching the numbers to see how quickly they will be able to pay off their coffee machine with cafe savings. They typically find that the payback period is less than a year and this has really helped many to justify the investment to themselves, and often to their partners as well.

This gave me the idea to prepare a spreadsheet myself. The results are just amazing. For a family replacing just 4 coffees per day at Melbourne cafe prices, a $3,000 investment (coffee machine, grinder and accessories) has a payback period of 7 months, and when you extend the calculations to 10 years you get a saving near $50,000 - and 14,500 cups as well.


What drinks can I make with an Italian espresso machine?

You can have a lot of fun making a whole range of drinks with an Italian coffee machine. Most of these drinks are espresso-based. That’s why coffee machines are often called espresso machines. Here are a few of the many drinks that you can make with a manual coffee machine:

  • Ristretto - An espresso cut short - typically, the first 2/3 of an espresso.

  • Espresso - The drink of the coffee connoisseur.

  • Long Black / Americano – Hot water with an espresso shot on top.

  • Macchiato - An espresso shot with a touch of steamed milk on top.

  • Latté - An espresso shot with steamed milk on top. Latté milk should be smooth and creamy with bubbles that you can barely see. These very small bubbles are known as micro-foam.

  • Cappuccino - An espresso shot with steamed milk on top. Cappuccino milk has larger bubbles than latté milk.

  • Piccolo Latté - An espresso shot with a small volume of steamed milk on top.

  • Mocha – Hot chocolate dissolved in an espresso shot with steamed milk on top.

  • Hot Chocolate - Dissolved hot chocolate with steamed milk on top.

  • Affogato - Ice cream with an espresso shot on top - yum!


Do Italian coffee machines take a long time to warm up?

Most coffee machines that I sell heat up pretty quickly. Typical heat up time for a boiler is 5 minutes. This is followed by a little time for the metal in the machine to heat up. For a coffee machine with a fixed group this can take 5 minutes. For a coffee machine with an E61 group this can take 15 minutes. If you are in a rush you get always speed up the heating time by running running water through the group. This is known as a warming flush. I can get any domestic E61 coffee machine up to temperature in 10 minutes with a warming flush.

The take home message is this. The E61 group is legendary for thermal stability and gentle brew pressure build up. This is why it is on so many Italian coffee machines. Never give up the legendary E61 group to save 5-10 minutes of warm up time.

Of course, the best solution for any coffee machine is to use a power point timer and set it up to switch your coffee machine on as you wake. You can even use a WiFi timer if you want to make your coffee machine “smart.”


Should I choose a coffee machine with a rotary pump?

Italian coffee machines come with a choice of either vibration or rotary pumps. Traditionally rotary pumps had the advantage of being quieter but some of the new coffee machines have closed the noise gap with some clever engineering to eliminate the "vibe rattle." In fact, the Profitec Pro 500 with its vibration pump is quieter than many machine with rotary pumps.

Coffee machines with vibration pumps have a slight advantage when it comes to espresso extraction due to a gentler pressure ramp up. This means that espresso extraction starts with a gentle wetting of the coffee puck, followed by slow pressure ramping up to full extraction pressure. Rotary pumps ramp up to full pressure quickly which means that the coffee puck is hit harder and faster, increasing the risk of channeling and uneven extraction.

However, if you want to plumb in your machine your will need to choose an espresso machine with a rotary pump. 


Should I choose a coffee machine with a dual boiler?

If you have read my Buying Guide you will already know that I’m a big fan of Aus Spec heat exchanger coffee machines. These machines give you the true home barista experience by allowing you to brew coffee and steam milk at the same time, and with an E61 group you get high thermal stability as well as gentle brew pressure build up to give a consistent extraction.

Most Italian heat exchanger coffee machines have large boilers which means that you can get a large volume of steam for milk texturing. Most can make back to back coffees all day long just like any commercial coffee machine. Even a professional barista will be hard pressed to outpace any of my heat exchanger machines.

Keep in mind that many cafes use heat exchanger machines. Commercial machines are bigger than domestic machines but the technology is the same and they share the old school simplicity and reliability of a single boiler and a single heating element.

I’m often asked for a dual boiler machine and I always ask “why do you want one?” It’s often because of the perception that they make better coffee. However, an Aus Spec heat exchanger coffee machine can brew just as effectively as a dual boiler machine. Dual boiler coffee machines do have advantages such as slightly better thermal stability and sometimes higher steam pressure, but to most these advantages won’t make much noticeable difference to the results in the cup.

As a final point, dual boiler coffee machines are typically $1000 more than their heat exchanger counterparts. Only you will know if the small performance differences are worth $1000 to you.

To learn more about heat exchanger and dual boiler coffee machines please visit my Buying Guide


Which domestic coffee machines can make back to back coffees?

Single boiler coffee machines can make back to back espressos all day long but they are a little slow when you are add milk-based coffees into the mix. This is because of the need to toggle the boiler between brew temperature and steam temperature. This issue goes away when you move up to any of the heat exchanger or dual boiler coffee machines in my range. All of these are capable of making back to back coffees all day long without any waiting. Even with my own quick workflow I won’t outpace any of these machines.


Is electronic temperature control effective on heat exchanger coffee machines?

An electronic temperature controller (PID) isn't necessary for stable brew temperature on a heat exchanger coffee machine. Any heat exchanger machine with a well engineered thermosyphon (water reticulation system) can be stable with either PID control or with traditional pressure stat control.

Beware. A number of manufacturers crudely replace pressure stats with PIDs as a way to make their heat exchanger coffee machines look “smart.” In engineering terms these machines are often complete failures as a PID cannot be used in place of a well engineered thermosyphon system. Without an effective thermosyphon a PID is completely ineffective when it comes to thermal stability and brew temperature control.

This is all different with PID heat exchanger coffee machines that have been engineered for a PID from the ground up. With these Italian espresso machines you can get fantastic thermal stability as well as effective brew temperature control from PID adjustments.

Most people will leave their machine at the factory setting (typically 93 deg C). ie, set and forget. However, some espresso aficionados will love the ability to play with brew temperature. For a darker and more bitter-sweet espresso you can set the brew temperature up to 95. For something brighter and more acidic you can set the temperature down to 91. Awesome!


What is an Aus Spec coffee machine?

Italian Spec coffee machines are factory set to deliver brew water near 96 deg C to suit dark roast Coffee Robusta beans and deliver bitter sweet espresso. Aus Spec coffee machines are set near 93 deg C to suit brighter, lighter and fruiter Coffee Arabica beans that we enjoy in Australia.

With single boiler or dual boiler machines this isn’t a problem as temperature can be reduced using a digital controller (PID).

When it comes to heat exchanger espresso machines it’s a different story as Italian Spec machines run hot, meaning that the water in their E61 groups superheats to well over 100 deg C when the machines sit idle. This means that a cooling flush is needed before pulling a shot. A cooling flush isn’t just an extra step. The need for a cooling flush means that the thermal stability of these machines is terrible. Of course, thermal stability is critical to consistently brilliant espresso.

When you choose an Italian heat exchanger coffee machine make sure that you find one that has been factory modified to deliver brew water near 93 deg C. The modification isn't as simple as just reducing the boiler pressure. The theromosyphon also needs to be modified as well to keep the brew temperature stable. These machines are referred to as Aus Spec.

Before committing to a heat exchanger Italian espresso machine ask your retailer if the machine is Aus Spec. If the retailer doesn't know what this means then let the warning bells ring. The second question to ask is "what brew temperature is the machine set to?" Again, the retailer should know.


How effective are pre-wetting and pre-infusion?

Here are my thoughts on pre-wetting and pre-infusion of the coffee puck.

Pre-wetting (gravity fed water dribble)

  • Consensus seems to be that pre-wetting is of negligible benefit and my own experience leads me to the same conclusion. This means that you should skip pre-wetting.

Pre-infusion (mains pressure fed water stream)

  • For Italian coffee machines with standard groups the benefit of mains pressure pre-infusion is significant because it prepares the coffee puck for the high initial pressure hit that a standard group delivers.

  • For Italian coffee machines with E61 groups the benefit of pre-infusion is negligible because E61 groups are designed for passive pre-infusion followed by gentle pressure build up. Passive pre-infusion is effectively engineered in to every E61 group.

So what does all this mean?

Firstly, forget all about pre-wetting. Secondly, mains pressure pre-infusion is useful for coffee machines with standard groups but the benefit is negligible for machines with E61 groups. The E61 is legendary for good reason. So my advice is to get an Italian coffee machine with an E61 group and forget all about pre-wetting and pre-infusion. Just pull the lever and let the E61 work its magic.


How effective are pressure profiling and flow profiling?

Pressure profiling and flow profiling coffee machines are able to control either water pressure or water flow to enable a controlled “push” onto the coffee puck. There are automatic (electronic) and manual (paddle or lever) options for this capability.

Some manufacturers and retailers claim that profiling changes the results in the cup, but true coffee aficionados, including myself, are unable to notice any difference. One thing is for certain. Unless you have an amazing palate you won’t notice any difference in the cup either. The only tangible benefit of profiling is the ability to control a gentle push onto the coffee puck during the initial stage of extraction.

However, pressure profiling capability is unnecessary for Italian coffee machines with E61 groups as the E61 groups have gentle pressure build up engineered in to their design. The E61 group is legendary for good reason. My advice is to skip pressure profiling and flow profiling and choose an Italian coffee machine with an E61 group.

With an effective workflow you will be able to get perfect extractions on any manual coffee machine without pressure profiling or flow profiling. This is what I do day in, day out, and you will be able to do this as well with Home Barista Training 


Is high steam pressure useful to a home barista?

Wow - what a great time to be a home barista if you enjoy steaming milk. Until recently the typical typical steam pressure for domestic Italian coffee machines was around 1.1 Bar and to get commercial steam pressure at near 2 Bar you needed to spend over $5k. This all changed with the introduction of the latest Lelit BiancaProfitec Pro 700 and ECM Synchronika

2 Bar of steam pressure is very powerful, so for home steaming I highly recommend the Lelit Bianca and the Profitec Pro 700 with their valves which allow you to reduce steam pressure for smaller milk jugs, and adjust steam pressure on-the-run.

So is high steam pressure important? Not at all. You can make great milky coffees at home with any quality espresso machine and all machines that I sell are capable of great steaming. Is high steam pressure nice to have? Yes. There’s something very cool about squirting the steam wand and seeing steam blast out.  


Are Italian coffee machines easy to maintain?

Unlike highly complex appliance coffee machines, manual Italian coffee machines are beautifully simple to use and very easy to maintain. There are just a few simple things that you need to do to keep your machine clean and healthy.

To find out how to maintain a manual Italian coffee machine see my Maintenance Guide